Робота по змінах не лише виводить із ладу наші біоритми, вона також підвищує ризик захворіти на рак. Ймовірно, науковцям вдалося з’ясувати причину цього. Згідно з результатами їхніх досліджень, нічна робота понижує рівень гормону сну мелатоніну, а це, своєю чергою, гальмує активність важливих механізми клітинного ремонту. Це можна простежити, аналізуючи вміст біомаркерів у сечі людини. У тих, хто працює позмінно, їх майже на 80% менше, ніж у тих, хто працює вдень.

Уже давно відомо, що позмінна робота впродовж тривалого часу не корисна для здоров’я. Постійно працюючи всупереч внутрішньому годиннику, людина не висипається, може страждати від надлишкової ваги та діабету, а також пошкодити роботу серця, кровообігу й навіть сприяти розумовій деградації. Також дослідження засвідчують: нічні зміни впродовж тривалого часу можуть підвищувати ризик розвитку раку.

 

Чому це так, можливо, з’ясували Парвін Батті (Parveen Bhatti) і його колеги з Центру вивчення раку імені Фреда Гатчінсона в Сіетлі. Згідно з їхніми твердженнями, брак гормону сну мелатоніну, до якого призводить робота по змінах, негативно впливає на процеси репарації ДНК у клітинах організму.

 

Докази цього науковці знайшли при аналізі проб сечі 50 людей, які мали позмінну роботу. Піддослідні спали приблизно 5,5 годин на добу, натомість у людей із нормальним робочим графіком цей показник становить 7,5 годин. З’ясувалося: під час фази сну у сечі нічних працівників містилася лише третина нормального вмісту мелатоніну – 17 нанограмів на міліграм креатиніну замість 51,7 нанограма. Це засвідчує: денний сон після нічної зміни не лише коротший, ніж нормальний нічний сон, він і гормонально (тобто психологічно) відрізняється від нічного сну, пояснили вчені.

 

Але причин не лише в цьому: в сечі працівників на позмінних роботах науковці виявили й понижені показники біомаркерів активної репарації ДНК. Сполука 8-OH-dG завжди виводиться з організму, коли клітинні механізми в клітинах та тканинах усувають ДНК-пошкодження, спричинені агресивними радикалами. Що більше 8-OH-dG міститься в сечі, то краще функціонує репарація ДНК.

 

Проте аналіз засвідчив: після нічної зміни вміст цього індикатора репарації різко зменшується: він досягає близько 20% того показника, що властивий людям, які сплять нормально. «Це відображає ймовірне зменшення ефективності репарації окисних пошкоджень ДНК», – кажуть учені. Можлива цього причина: мелатонін сприяє активності генів, що важливі для процесу відновлення. Якщо бракує гормону сну, це також загальмує ремонт ДНК.

 

На думку вчених, виявлений ефект може пояснити, чому задіяні до позмінних робіт людини частіше хворіють на рак: адже недостатній і часово зміщений сон підтримує низький рівень мелатоніну, тож вади ДНК не вдається усувати достатньо ефективно. Так зростає ризик клітинної деградації.

 

Наступні дослідження мають роз’яснити, чи насправді існує взаємозв’язок між браком мелатоніну та загальмованим ремонтом ДНК. Якщо гіпотеза підтвердиться, то це відкриє шлях новим можливостям для попередження недуги та її терапії. «Згодом ми протестуємо, чи додаткові дози мелатоніну для позмінних працівників можуть усувати ДНК-вади, що провокують рак», – розказав Батті.

 

Nachtschicht hemmt die DNA-Reparatur
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 29.06.2017
Зреферувала Соломія Кривенко

02.07.2017
Джерело:zbruc.eu
 

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