Людина та людське життя є  чи не основними особливостями лікарської діяльності, яка обумовлена надзвичайною складністю і різноманіттям процесів життєдіяльності організму людини. Саме тому від медичних працівників вимагається повсякденне, протягом всієї лікарської діяльності, самонавчання і самовдосконалення.

І говорячи про вплив у цій професії медичної етики та деонтології, варто задуматись над словами, які сказав  Папа Франциск під час зустрічі з представниками Асоціації італійських лікарів-католиків:

«Одне життя не може бути більш священним і якісним, ніж інше, через великі ресурси, права, соціальні і економічні можливості. Медики покликані свідчити словом і прикладом, що входить у їх професійні якості, збагачені духом віри. В той час як клятва Гіппократа зобов’язує лікарів завжди бути служителями життя, Євангеліє надихає іти далі: любити життя, зокрема й тоді, коли воно потребує особливої турботи і уваги»

Деонтологія як важлива складова загальної етики,  розглядає поведінку лікаря та медичного персоналу у повсякденній діяльності.

Головні принципи цієї науки закріплені в ряді міжнародних декларацій і конвенційекларації прав людини, Генеральною Асамблеєю ООН).

Особливість лікарської діяльності обумовлює необхідність високих морально-етичних та духовних якостей для будь-якого медичного працівника, насамперед, лікаря.

Основоположними принципами медичної етики та деонтології є:

  • гуманне ставлення до хворого
  • не брати участі в діях проти здоров’я хворого
  • надання допомоги всім, хто її потребує, незалежно від расової, політичної і релігійної приналежності
  • солідарність усіх лікарів у повазі гідності людей, їх боротьбі за мир
  • збереження лікарської таємниці
  • участь в охороні життя людей від тих чи інших ексцесів, що загрожують їм (наприклад, від забруднення зовнішнього середовища)
  • недопущення експериментів над людьми
  • утримання від вчинків, які можуть принизити гідність професії лікаря.

Дані принципи об’єднує одна спільна мета – повага до людини до її гідності та життя.                 

Хартія працівників охорони здоров’я навчає, що діяльність працівників медичної служби має високу вартість, оскільки служить життю, а також є втіленням глибоко людського та християнського покликання, що полягає не лише в суто технічній діяльності, але сповнена посвяти і любові до ближнього. Ця діяльність є «формою християнського свідчення». Медик, це той хто береже життя людини від моменту зачаття до природної смерті та служить йому.

Відповідальність за хворого і його здоров’я – головне моральне завдання лікаря. В основі всієї діяльності лікаря має лежати знаменитий гіппократівській принцип: «Не нашкодь!». Тільки спираючись на цей принцип лікар може вибудовувати свої відносини з пацієнтом, які повинні бути доброзичливими, довірчими, поважними, оскільки душевний стан хворого – це також надзвичайно важливий фактор успішності та ефективності лікувального процесу.

Разом з тим необережне слово лікаря, його байдуже або безвідповідальне ставлення до хворого можуть виявитися етіологічним фактором  ятрогенного захворювання, посилитися протягом захворювання і вплинути на результат лікування.

Також важливими є взаємини між лікарями та іншими медичними працівниками. Від того, наскільки правильно і тактовно будуються ці взаємовідносини, який психологічний клімат в лікувальній установі, залежить і якість його роботи. Основою для правильних взаємин у медичному колективі є взаємоповага, взаємодовіра, готовність допомогти один одному, а в підсумку – хворому.

Враховуючи важливість покликання медика, деонтологія є необхідною і невід’ємною складовою діяльності. Медицина лікує людину, гідність якої стереже етика. Усвідомлення цінності дару життя й здоров’я веде до більш шанобливого ставлення до інших і до самого себе.

Джерело: medcentr.if.ua

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